Aktualisasi Diri Menurut Abraham Maslow

Self Actualization - Pras Personal Blog

Dalam artikel sebelumnya yang berjudul Teori Kebutuhan Abraham Maslow, saya berjanji untuk membahas terpisah tingkatan tertinggi dari teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow, dan berikut penjelasan singkat tentang tingkatan puncak kebutuhan manusia tersebut, yaitu aktualisasi diri.

Maslow melakukan sebuah studi kualitatif dengan metode analisis biografi guna mendapat gambaran jelas mengenai aktualisasi diri.

Dia menganalisis riwayat hidup, karya, dan tulisan sejumlah orang yang dipandangnya telah memenuhi kriteria sebagai pribadi yang beraktualisasi diri. Termasuk dalam daftar ini adalah Albert Einstein, Abraham Lincoln, William James, dan Eleanor Roosevelt.

Berdasarkan hasil analisis tersebut, Maslow menyusun sejumlah kualifikasi yang mengindikasikan karakteristik pribadi-pribadi yang telah beraktualisasi :

1. Memusatkan diri pada realitas (reality-centered), yakni melihat sesuatu apa adanya dan mampu melihat persoalan secara jernih, bebas dari bias.

2. Memusatkan diri pada masalah (problem-centered), yakni melihat persoalan hidup sebagai sesuatu yang perlu dihadapi dan dipecahkan, bukan dihindari.

3. Spontanitas, menjalani kehidupan secara alami, mampu menjadi diri sendiri serta tidak berpura-pura.

4. Otonomi pribadi, memiliki rasa puas diri yang tinggi, cenderung menyukai kesendirian dan menikmati hubungan persahabatan dengan sedikit orang namun bersifat mendalam.

5. Penerimaan terhadap diri dan orang lain. Mereka memberi penilaian tinggi pada individualitas dan keunikan diri sendiri dan orang lain. Dengan kata lain orang-orang yang telah beraktualisasi diri lebih suka menerima anda apa adanya ketimbang berusaha mengubah anda.

6. Rasa humor yang ‘tidak agresif’ (unhostile). Mereka lebih suka membuat lelucon yang menertawakan diri sendiri atau kondisi manusia secara umum (ironi), ketimbang menjadikan orang lain sebagai bahan lawakan dan ejekan.

7. Kerendahatian dan menghargai orang lain (humility and respect)

8. Apresiasi yang segar (freshness of appreciation), yakni melihat sesuatu dengan sudut pandang yang orisinil, berbeda dari kebanyakan orang. Kualitas inilah yang membuat orang-orang yang telah beraktualisasi merupakan pribadi-pribadi yang kreatif dan mampu menciptakan sesuatu yang baru.

9. Memiliki pengalaman spiritual yang disebut Peak experience.

NB: Peak experience atau sering disebut juga pengalaman mistik adalah suatu kondisi saat seseorang (secara mental) merasa keluar dari dirinya sendiri, terbebas dari kungkungan tubuh kasarnya.

Pengalaman ini membuat kita merasa sangat kecil atau sangat besar, dan seolah-olah menyatu dengan semesta atau keabadian.

Ini bukanlah persoalan klenik atau takhayul, tetapi benar-benar ada dan menjadi kajian khusus dalam Psikologi Transpersonal, suatu (klaim) aliran keempat dalam ilmu psikologi setelah psikoanalisis, behaviorisme, dan humanisme.

150 Comments + Add Comment

  • Terima kasih Artikel yang sangat bagus dan sangat berguna bagi saya yang awam.

  • terimakasih, artikel yang amat bermanfaat untuk menambah pengetahuan.

  • trimakasih atas artikelnya. sangat beranfaat untuk saya :)

  • tulisan yang bagus, bisa membantu orang lain untuk lebih memahami ttg teori ini

  • izin share

  • merasa lebih banyak intropeksi diri setelah membaca artikel ini,,
    luar biasa, trima kasih. :)

  • Terimakasih, artikel ini banyak membantu meningkatkan kualitas diri.
    Semoga kita menjadi pribadi beraktualisasi :)

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NICK: PRAS

Young Entrepreneur, Jewelry Graphic Designer, Pecandu Ilmu Psikologi dan Seni Sastra.

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